Variable Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis

an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance may be caused by

We should allocate this $2,000 to wherever those direct materials are physically located. However, if $2,000 is an insignificant amount, the materiality guideline allows for the entire $2,000 to be deducted from the cost of goods sold on the income statement.

an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance may be caused by

†$273,000 standard variable overhead costs match the flexible budget presented in Note 10.18 “Review Problem 10.2”, part 2. †$105,000 standard variable overhead costs matches the flexible budget presented in Figure 10.2 “Flexible Budget for Variable Production Costs at Jerry’s Ice Cream”. Is the difference between the number of direct labor hours actually worked and what should have been worked based on the standards. Actual direct labor hours are less than the budgeted direct labor hours allowed for the actual output. The other component of the total variable overhead variance is the variable overhead efficiency variance. The production department is usually responsible for unfavorable variable overhead spending variance. If 970 oil changes were performed instead of 980, the standard quantities allowed would be lower, since the production of fewer oil changes takes less oil and fewer direct labor hours.

Why Do Companies Use A Predetermined Rate To Allocate Fixed Overhead?

An unfavorable variance may occur if the cost of indirect labor increases, cost controls are ineffective, or there are errors in budgetary planning. If the relationship is expected to persist, then the new direct labor method should be abandoned. If the favorable variance were larger and this is expected to persist, then the new direct labor method should be kept and the standards revised to reflect the new circumstances. Similarly, if the allocated volume is down to the number of machine hours and a company outsources some or all of its production, the budgeted amount of machine hours will be much less than expected.

Which of the following is not a flexible budget variance?

The correct answer is A) total fixed overhead variance. Total fixed overhead variance is not a flexible budget variance because its budget fixed…

If the direct labor is not efficient when producing the good output, there will be an unfavorable labor efficiency variance. That inefficiency will likely cause additional variable manufacturing overhead which will result in an unfavorable variable manufacturing overhead efficiency variance. If the inefficiencies are significant, the company might not be able to produce enough good output to absorb the planned fixed manufacturing overhead costs. This in turn can also cause an unfavorable fixed manufacturing overhead volume variance. When budgets are prepared, the costs are usually computed at two levels, in total dollars so an income statement can be prepared, and cost per unit.

Possible Causes Of Variable Manufacturing Overhead Variances

Last month, XYZ produced 9,600 units and employed 29,000 direct labor hours. Variable overhead spending variance is the difference between actual variable manufacturing overhead incurred and actual hours worked during the period multiplied by standard variable overhead rate. Actual labor costs of $63,375 are more than flexible budget costs of $58,500, so the labor an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance may be caused by rate variance is $4,875 unfavorable. As with materials, the labor can also be thought of on a price per hour basis. The actual costs of $63,375 were for 6,580 hours, which calculates to an average pay rate of $9.75 per direct labor hour. This $0.75 per hour difference resulted in the unfavorable rate variance because actual costs were higher than budgeted costs.

  • Variable overhead is the indirect cost of operating a business, which fluctuates with manufacturing activity.
  • For example, one employee can produce 10 completed units in two hours.
  • If the difference is positive, it is said to be favorable, and vice versa.
  • An example might be the cost of the needles for the machines that sew together the shoes, or a steep hike in the electricity rate.
  • The balances in the variance accounts are usually closed to the cost of goods sold account, particularly when the amounts are small.
  • This may result from both increasing the prices of goods and services used and from the excessive consumption of these goods and services.

An unfavorable overhead volume variance indicates that the factors used or the activity base used in costing overheads to the products have been used inefficiently. Unfavorable labor efficiency variances may arise from managerial decisions to use poorly trained workers or poorly maintained machinery. It is also attributable to downtime resulting from the use of low-quality materials. However, production managers can experience serious problems in terms of labor efficiency variance. The actual time taken by workers may be significantly greater than the standard time allowed to produce a given amount of product. Let’s assume that the Direct Materials Usage Variance account has a debit balance of $2,000 at the end of the accounting year.

Management Accounting: Concepts,

Assume your company’s standard cost for denim is $3 per yard, but you buy some denim at a bargain price of $2.50 per yard. For each yard of denim purchased, DenimWorks reports a favorable direct materials price variance of $0.50.

an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance may be caused by

The fixed overhead spending variance is the difference between actual and budgeted fixed overhead costs. The fixed overhead production volume variance is the difference between budgeted and applied fixed overhead costs. There is no efficiency variance for fixed manufacturing overhead. The variances can be calculated in total for variable and fixed costs, in which case the variances are referred to as the controllable variance and the volume variance.

How Are Fixed And Variable Overhead Different?

One is caused by spending too much or too little on fixed overhead. The other is caused by actual production being above or below the expected production level. Similarly, when considering labor hours, downtime from production due to maintenance or start up and break time must be included in the number of hours it takes to make a product. Once standards are established, they are used to analyze and determine the reasons for actual cost variances from standards.

The total fixed overhead cost variance of $57 favorable is the combination of the $175 unfavorable spending variance and the $232 favorable volume variance. Standard costs are used to establish the flexible budget for variable manufacturing overhead.


A company may even use both machine and labor hours as a basis for the standard rate if the use both manual and automated processes in their operations. Inefficient direct labor, machine downtime, bored workers, and poor quality direct materials are possible causes of an unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance. Your variable components may consist of things such as indirect material, and direct labor, and supplies. Fixed overhead may include rent, car insurance, maintenance, depreciation and more. Variance analysis for overhead is split between variances related to variable and fixed costs. The spending variance is the difference between planned and actual costs.

Who is responsible for Unfavourable labor efficiency variances caused by poor quality materials?

The materials quantity and labor efficiency variances are usually the responsibility of production managers and supervisors. The materials price variance can be computer at what two different points in time?

Employees are paid a bonus of 10% of the standard cost of materials saved and 40% of direct labor time saved, valued at the standard direct labor hour rate. If the $2,000 balance is a credit balance, the variance is favorable. This means that the actual direct materials used were less than the standard quantity of materials called for by the good output.

The total direct labor variance is $3,525 unfavorable and consists of a $4,875 unfavorable rate variance and a $1,350 favorable efficiency variance. Your actual fixed factory overhead may show little variation from your budget. For example, rent is usually subject to a lease agreement that is certain. Depreciation on factory equipment can be calculated in advance. The cost of your insurance policies are connected to a contract.

Variance formulas can highlight differences between what’s expected and what actually happens. This lesson analyzes price variance, efficiency variance, and variable overhead variance and explains what they can reveal about business performance.

an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance may be caused by

An event that will create a direct labor rate variance that is controllable. Favorable fixed overhead expenditure variance suggests that actual fixed costs incurred during the period have been lower than budgeted cost. Planned business expansion, which was anticipated to cause a stepped increase in fixed overheads, not being undertaken during the period. Standard costing is a technique where the firm compares the costs that were incurred for the production of the goods and the costs that should have been incurred for the same. Essentially it is the comparison between actual costs and standard costs. It is calculated as x , Fixed overhead efficiency variance is the difference between absorbed fixed production overheads attributable to the change in the manufacturing efficiency during a period.

Efficiency variance is a numerical figure that represents the difference between the theoretical amount of inputs required to produce a unit of output and the actual number used in practice. You are an accounting analyst at GGG Consulting, a company that provides management consulting services. You are asked to perform a cost variance report for the month of January. Price variance is the difference between actual price and budgeted price for producing a good. Health Dart produces a watch that keeps track of daily activities. If the actual cost of producing the watch is lower than what was budgeted, Health Dart will make more money on each watch than what was estimated. If revenue items like sales are higher than budget, the company will also make more than the budgeted amount.

Each item’s variance should be analyzed to see if these costs can be reduced. The volume variance is the incorrect prediction of volume, or alternatively, it is a signal of the loss or gain that occurred because of producing at a level different from the expected level.

Efficiency variance is the difference between what was actually used in production and what was estimated to be used. In this case, we’re measuring inputs such as direct materials, labor, and machining time for producing a product or service.

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